Fishermen from Portugal, the Basque provinces of France and Spain, Northern France (perhaps Normandy) and West Country England are known to have frequented eastern Newfoundland during the first half of the 1600s, some as early as the first decade of the 16th century.
The most obvious feature of the defensive works is a large ditch, some 6.1 metres (20 feet) wide and about 1.2 metres (4 feet) deep that seems to have bordered at least the entire eastern side of the colony.
The principal residence of Avalon, where Calvert and his family lived during the winter of 1628-29 and in which the Kirkes established their residence in 1638, has long been the object of archaeologists working at Ferryland.
Each artifact or sample removed from the burial matrix of an excavation unit is described briefly on a field tag. Exact location, depth below surface, date of excavation and excavator's name are recorded on the tag.